Benefits-Based Management/Outcomes-Focused Management (BBM/OFM)

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Benefits-based Management, or the newer term Outcomes-focused Management, refers to a planning model that recognizes individuals and communities realize certain benefits from recreation. By manipulating the recreation setting with management inputs (e.g., facilities, services, access), managers can help facilitate desired beneficial outcomes. BBM is characterized as a shift from activity or setting-based management to the outcomes of management actions.

Community based research for an urban recreation application of benefits-based management > Borrie and Roggenbuck, 1995. The authors describe a philosophical framework that suggests that communities are themselves the primary sources, generators, and repositories of knowledge. Communities are valuable sources of information about their own needs, and are important players in benefits-based management.

Evolution and implications of a paradigm shift in the marketing of leisure services in the USA > Crompton, 2008. The author describes the evolution of leisure services marketing in the USA in five stages: pre-marketing (activity/custodial focus), selling, user benefits orientation, community-wide benefits orientation and re-positioning.

Managing Recreation Resources for Positive Outcomes: An Application of Benefits-based Management - Stein and Lee, 1995. This paper investigates the relationship between benefits desired by recreationists and the activities and setting (physical, social, and managerial) characteristics that may facilitate realization of those benefits.

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